1. Freedom of religion and freedom from religion
Martin Luther's declaration that "We are all priests," is the claim that freed us from theocracy. There was a time when people looked to the church to explain causation and looked to supernatural causes rather than natural causes as reasons for why people got sick, crops failed or ships wrecked.
The Enlightenment thinkers who founded the US were among the first to free the community from the tyranny of one religious voice, allowing us all to freely choose how - and whether - worship. One of the biggest benefits of this is that it shifted the basis for social cohesion from dogma to science. Science builds on testable hypotheses and regularly generates new understanding. Scientific thinking is the stuff of progress.
The first amendment to the US Constitution captures beautifully the dimensions of this:
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
The notion that a community should be for all its members and not just the aristocracy is another essential layer to the prosperity of our modern world. Theocracies and democracies are just made up but the consequences are real. Of the 10 most prosperous countries in the world, 10 are democracies.
3. The American Dream
Retirement income. The possibility of early retirement. Owning one's own home. Time and money for vacations. Most importantly, enough affluence to choose what career and what company - perhaps even one's own company - to work at.
The notion that people can freely and easily participate in job markets, credit and stock markets, and be consumers in a world with millions of products and services is another foundation stone to progress.
These three are foundations to the world in which we now live. They do need continual improvement and refinement. They need to be offered more broadly. (We need to continue efforts to make it easier for everyone to vote and lift more people out of poverty.) We will not make progress by having less of these three; we will have progress by having more them, more independence of thought and reliance on scientific rather than superstitious thought, more ability for communities to define the laws and policies that define their world, and more widely shared affluence.
These three also represent a transformation of the dominant institution from a tool for the elites into a tool for the masses. "We are all priests," and "We the people," made church and state tools for the individual, overturning theocracies and monarchies. The 20th century story of how the average person was given access to credit and investment markets and department stores and online shopping is a story of widespread poverty giving way to widespread affluence. The 20th century included the story of how financial markets - like church and state before them - became a tool for the masses and not just elites. Progress will never come from blowing these up, or reversing any of these three major institutional changes. It will come from furthering them.
More dramatic than incremental improvements on these three previous victories, though, is a transformation of the corporation. Like church, state, and bank before it, the corporation is now the dominant institution.
In the early 20th century, we made dramatic gains as corporations learned how to mass manufacture goods, giving the common person goods that had previously reserved for elites. Ford's Model T might be the most dramatic example of this.
Year - Number Sold - Price
1910 19,050 $900
1910 19,050 $900
1925 1,911,705 $260
This is a wonderful example of the American Dream in action, a good once out of reach becoming accessible. A broad swath of people were able to enjoy what only a few had earlier been able to enjoy.
Today's corporation is less about making products than creating value. In the company of 1920 succeeded by making products that benefited more people, the company of 2020 succeeds by making value that more benefits more people. Because of the transformation that has come from the American Dream, every year more Americans are benefiting from this latter promise of modern companies.
What does this mean for the corporation? For it to become a tool for the common person, it needs to build mechanisms that allow its employees to more easily create - and share in - wealth through forms of entrepreneurship. Like church, state and bank before it, the corporation needs to be made the tool of the common person and not just elites.
Progress won't blow up the three freedoms that have come from making church, state, and bank our tools to be used for us rather than we for them. Progress will come from extending that pattern of progress once more into yet another dominant institution.